Evaluation of environmental impact (EIA) is called the technical and administrativeprocedure that serves to identify, prevent and interpret environmental impacts thatwill produce a project in your environment should be executed, all to the end that thecompetent administration may accept it, reject it or modify it.
This administrative legal procedure starts with the presentation of the report summaryby a "promoter", follows the completion of consultation to individuals and institutionsby the Environment Agency, continues with the completion of the EIS (environmentalimpact study) carried out by the promoter and its presentation to the substantive body. It extends in a process of public participation and is concluded with the issuanceof the day by the Environment Agency.
The study of environmental impact (EIA) is an important tool for the evaluation of theenvironmental impact of an intervention. It is a technical, objective, character multiand interdisciplinary study carried out to predict the environmental impacts that mayresult from the execution of a project, activity or policy allowing decision makingdecisions on the environmental feasibility of the same. It constitutes the basicdocument for the environmental impact assessment process.
The EIA has become mandatory in many laws. The consequences of a negativeassessment can be different according to the legislation and the rigour with which thisapplies, going from the permanent cessation of the project to their completeignorance. The concept first appeared in the USA legislation and it has extended laterto other countries. The European Union introduced its legislation in 1985, havingsuffered with the rules amendments on several subsequent occasions.
The EIA is always refers to a specific project, already defined in its individuals such as:type of work, materials to be used, construction procedures, maintenance work in theoperational phase, technologies, supplies, etc.
History of the EIA
The evaluation of the impact environmental (EIA) emerged at the end of the 1960s inthe United States under the name of "environmental impact assessment" (EIA) - insome cases rather than "Assessment" can find Analysis or Statement). The EIAintroduces the first forms of control of the interactions of human friendly interventions(whether direct or indirect), through instruments and procedures designed toanticipate and assess the impact of specific interventions. All this with the intention toreduce, mitigate, correct and compensate for the impacts.
In 1969 a step forward, is given in the United States, with the adoption of the"National Environmental Policy Act" (N.E.P.A.). This legislation has the introduction ofEIA, the reinforcement of the "Environmental Protection Agency" (with anadministrative role of control), and provides for the establishment of the "Council on Environmental Quality".
In 1979, the "Regulations for implementing the Procedural Prévisions of N.E.P.A.", aregulation which makes mandatory EIA for public projects, or that they are financed bypublic funds. The study of the environmental impact is executed directly by thecompetent authority in the respective final license, scheduled the emanation of twoseparate acts: one concerning the assessment of environmental impacts and the otherconcerning the authorisation to execute the work.