In England between the years 1760 and 1780, the mechanization of the productionbegan to be important due to the speed and volume due to large machines that usedcoal as the main energy. From that moment the man has used and destroyed theirown natural resources, water and production reserves of oxygen necessary for life. Theuse of new technologies, wasteful and irresponsible consumerism has generated anegative effect on the ecosystem.
People around the world begin to find solutions to these events and hence theconcept of sustainable development appears to answer the question: will we be ableto meet the future needs with the current use of resources?
The sustainable development concept has as origin the concern by the scarcity ofnatural resources and its impact on economic growth since 1978 by Malthus in hisessay on population.
It then will be presented to the most important milestones:
1968: Creation of the Club of Rome.
Organization made up of politicians and intellectuals who came from 105 countries,anxious to solve the main problems of the world where discussed and analyzedcurrent and future problems of humanity and the limits of economic growth againstthe increasingly widespread use of natural resources. The aim was focused onanalyzing the origins of the problems, the issues were: growth of the population,unemployment, poverty, pollution, urban concentration, alienation of youth, inflation,rejection of traditional values and loss of faith in institutions.
In 1972, the the United Nations Conference on the human environment, Stockholm,was in response to the discussions about the risks of environmental degradation. Thebook the author Dennis Meadows growth limits, pointed out that the demographicvariable is important to control poor countries due to its misuse and environmentalproblems of rich countries resulting from industrial pollution. Your argument is notonly that we must set limits for the exponential growth of economic activities,population, pollution, since the world is considered as today, finite land, mineraldeposits and energy resources and the ability to withstand pollution. This first reportprovides results of computer simulations of the evolution of the human population on the basis of the exploitation of natural resources, with projections up to 2100.
World3 through various simulations software delivers results from an excess in the useof natural resources and its progressive depletion of a collapse in agricultural andindustrial production and a sharp decrease in human population. Show that a possiblesolution is the "growth zero or steady-state", so that natural resources that remain areundermined by economic growth so that in this way they can last longer. The mainthesis of the book is "on a limited planet, the dynamics of exponential growth(population and per capita product) are not sustainable".
Among others who were also linked to the history of major environmental events, isMaurice Strong, who in 1972 was Secretary-General of the first Earth Summit, whosefinal declaration puts forward the following principles:
a man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and the enjoyment of adequateconditions of life in an environment of quality that allows them to lead a dignified lifeand enjoy wellness, and has the solemn obligation to protect and improve theenvironment for present and future generations. In this respect, policies promoting orperpetuating apartheid, racial segregation, discrimination, colonial oppression andother forms of oppression and foreign domination are condemned and must beremoved.
b natural resources of the Earth, including air, water, land, flora and fauna, especiallyrepresentative samples of natural ecosystems, should be preserved in benefits ofgenerations and future through careful planning or management, as appropriate.
One of the results of this Conference, which alerted Governments about the need toact against the deterioration of the planet, was the creation of the United Nationsprogramme for the environment (UNEP), the first executive director was MauriceStrong.
1973 (5 to 16 June) of the United Nations Conference on the human environment inStockholm.